Mobile phones and the Law

Mobile phones are ubiquitous and incredibly useful for RECORDING and REPORTING wildlife crime scenes for example.

The law is very clear about using phones while driving a quad bike, for example, but phones are regularly seen at hunts – used both by sabs and monitors to photograph or record the hunt and conversely by hunts and (as in the image above) their supporters to record sabs and monitors.

Note, the driver of a moving vehicle CAN NOT use a mobile phone under any circumstances.

Are we allowed to take images of other people, or can we legally stop someone taking images of us?

  • A key point (which applies equally to cameras like GoPros or bodycams) is that there is no current UK law preventing people from taking photographs in public/in a public place – even of private property or individuals on private property – but if taking photographs while ON private land (technically) the land owner’s permission is required.
  • In terms of then publishing an image or video any breaches of law could depend on considerations of whether an individual is being defamed (ie their good reputation is harmed), their right to privacy is being breached, or whether publishing is in the public interest (which itself is very loosely defined and roughly means “the welfare or well-being of the general public“).

A member of the Wynnstay Hunt reaches into a car to take a photograph. Image Cheshire Monitors

Huntsman Charles Carter of the Royal Artillery Hunt photographing monitors  Image Salisbury Plain Monitors

The statutory definition of “public place” contained within the Prevention of Crime Act 1953 at section 1(4) is not very helpful but states it ‘includes any highway and any other premises of place to which at the material time the public have or are permitted to have access, whether on payment or otherwise’.

Institutions to which the public have access such as churches and museums, however, may own the land, making these a ‘private’ setting which has a significant effect on the need for permission to take photographs.

Note that a vehicle is also considered as a public place, unless it was parked on private property at the time. This presumably means that photographs and video can be taken of or inside a vehicle, and may be relevant in terms of photographing unsecured firearms or offensive weapons as “Possessing an offensive weapon in a public place is an offence contrary to s 1 of the Prevention of Crime Act 1953”.

Yes. There is no law preventing people from taking photographs in public or in a public place. This includes taking photos of other people’s children.

Photographs taken while ON private land, however, require the land owner’s permission, and taking a photo of a person where they can expect privacy, such as inside their home or garden, may cause a breach of privacy laws. 

Unless the images which have been taken are indecent, though, or might be considered harrassment no one has the right to:

  • ask a photographer to stop
  • ask for a copy of the photos 
  • force a photographer to delete the photographs

They can ask, yes, but if the filming or recording is in a public place then we are allowed to refuse their request and continue filming – unless the image is being taken for purposes of crime or terrorism. This is true whether taking still photos or video in one form or another.

However, several websites suggest that if despite being asked to stop the photographer continues persistent or aggressive photography and their conduct causes alarm or distress, this may be considered as harassment.

  • ‘Persistent’ is apparently a difficult concept to define in law, but does suggest something that continues to exist or happen for a long time. It seems unlikely then that taking a photograph while following a hunt for a day could be considered harrassment in itself.
  • In law, ‘harrassment’ is when a person behaves in a way which is intended to cause distress or alarm. The behaviour must happen on more than one occasion. It can be the same type of behaviour or different types of behaviour on each occasion.

If we’ve taken photographs at eg a hunt, could the riders or hunt supporters claim ‘image rights’ in an attempt to stop images being used or published?

No. Unlike many other countries, the UK (currently) doesn’t have an ‘image right’ or ‘character right’ which allows an individual to control the use of his or her name or image.

There are of course a number of other laws which could make using an image unlawful, such as defamation (harming the good reputation of an individual) or passing off (using an image to falsely suggest an endorsement when advertising goods for example), but no one can legitimately claim that they have ‘image rights’.

If the image has been legally obtained and has not been manipulated or edited to suggest something that hasn’t actually taken place, there seems to be no law stopping us from using it (especially if it is ‘in the public interest’).

What if we take or have taken a video at a hunt or wildlife crime scene that then goes viral?

In a November 2022  article by Dr Hayleigh Bosher (and published in The Conversation under a Creative Commons licence) the following points were raised:

  • Privacy rights are protected by the UK Human Rights Act 1998, which aims to prevent other people from interfering with your life. It stipulates that personal information about you, including photographs and correspondence such as letters and emails, shouldn’t be shared publicly without your permission. Other personal information, such as your address and telephone number, is protected under the Data Protection Act 2018.
  • However, privacy law only applies where there is a “reasonable expectation of privacy”. This means rights would be breached if someone hacked into a phone and stole private photos, but not necessarily if a photo taken in a public place was published. 
  • Defamation law could protect an individual if someone uses an image in a defamatory way. The legal test means the image has to cause, or is likely to cause, serious harm to your reputation and only applies if what the person shares is untrue. So if the photo is real this is unlikely to apply – if the image has been manipulated to make it look like look like an individual is doing something they didn’t, then defamation law could apply.
  • Privacy is a qualified right, meaning that it can be breached under certain circumstances, such as if it is in the public interest. This could be a useful defence for publishing  photos [or video] of high-profile politicians whose behaviour may reflect something important about their leadership [or in a Protectors of the Wild context, it could be argued that it is in the public interest to show a huntsman or hunt supporter breaking the law or inflicting cruelty or suffering on an animal].

No. Using a mobile phone while driving was banned in 2003, but the law was strengthened in 2022. From 25 March 2022 it became illegal in England, Scotland, and Wales for a driver to hold and use a phone, sat nav, tablet, or any device that can send or receive data, while driving or riding a motorcycle or quad bike.

Note that an accident does not need to happen for an offence to be committed.

This means a driver (but NOT a passenger who is not in control of the vehicle) must not use a device in their hand for any reason, whether online or offline. This includes texting, making calls, taking photos or videos, or browsing the web.

The law still applies if the driver is:

  • stopped at traffic lights
  • queuing in traffic
  • supervising a learner driver
  • driving a car that turns off the engine when the car stops moving
  • holding and using a device that’s offline or in flight mode


The standard penalty for being caught using a handheld mobile phone when driving is six penalty points and a £200 fine. 



A device can be held in hand if an individual:

  • needs to call 999 or 112 in an emergency and it’s unsafe or impractical to stop
  • is safely parked
  • is making a contactless payment in a vehicle that is not moving, for example at a drive-through restaurant
  • is using the device to park a vehicle remotely.


Using devices hands-free

Devices with hands-free access can be used, as long as they are not held at any time during usage and do not block the view of the road and traffic ahead. Hands-free access means using, for example:

  • a Bluetooth headset
  • voice command
  • a dashboard holder or mat
  • a windscreen mount
  • a built-in sat nav

The legal advice seems to be confusing. For example, the NFU Mutual Insurance company states on its website that “using your mobile phone whilst riding is illegal and very dangerous“, but in a written answer the  UK government said in May 2020 that it had no current plans to introduce new penalties for cyclists and horse riders using mobile phones while riding. The Northern Ireland government says toAlways carry a mobile phone (or money for a public phone) in case of an emergency, but make sure all mobile electrical equipment you carry is switched off while riding, so that you can hear clearly.”

However, legal issues might arise if a rider causes an accident while using a mobile phone.

All road users (including horse riders) are required to comply with road traffic law in the interests of their own safety and that of other road users. The Official Highway Code explains the law and gives advice for cyclists and horse riders on how to safely use roads.

Rule 53 states clearly that equestrians should [note, not MUST] keep both hands on the reins, unless when signalling, so should not be using mobile phones while riding, unless in an emergency.

British Horse Society director of safety Alan Hiscox was also quoted in May 2020 saying: “As vulnerable road users, it is vitally important horse riders and carriage drivers adhere to the rules of the Highway Code when riding on the road.

“While remaining safe on the roads is not always fully in our control, we are all responsible for ensuring we keep ourselves as safe, as visible and as in control as possible.”

Ian Dexter of HorseSolicitor says that should a rider be proven to be on the phone when an accident occurred, and a related claim went to court, the opposition could argue contributory negligence on the rider’s part; that the rider was not paying full attention to the road so was partly at fault.

  • Interestingly, under the Licensing Act 1872, it is an offence to be drunk in charge of a horse (and a carriage cow or steam engine, or whilst in possession of a loaded firearm).

A passenger in a moving vehicle can legally film you, but there are no circumstances under which a person driving a moving vehicle can use a phone or video camera while they are driving.

Any incidents should be reported to the police citing Regulation 110 of the Road Vehicles (Construction & Use) Regulations 1986.

No. Because there is no expectation of privacy in public places, in general (unless taking indecent images or harassing or stalking over a period of time) anyone taking photos in public is not breaking any laws and if an individual damages or confiscates (takes) another person’s phone or camera they are potentially breaking the Theft Act 1968 and possibly assaulting a person in the process.

  • Theft is defined by section 1 Theft Act 1968 as ‘dishonestly appropriating property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it’.
  • Robbery is defined by Section 8(1) Theft Act 1968 as ‘A person is guilty of robbery if the person steals, and immediately before or at the time of doing so, and in order to do so, they use force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being then and there subjected to force.’
  • Offences of assault fall under the Offences against the Person Act 1861, the Criminal Justice Act 1988 and the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Common assault is when a person inflicts violence on someone else or makes them think they are going to be attacked and does not have to involve physical violence. Threatening words or a raised fist is enough for the crime to have been committed provided the victim thinks that they are about to be attacked. Spitting at someone is another example of common assault. (For more see our Protectors page > Assault and the Law.)

The law usually refers to taking and creating an ‘image’ (or images) – which includes all types of visual content, including still photography (digital or film), motion film or video.

From what we can find there doesn’t seem to be a difference in the way UK law separates a photograph from a video (which is in effect a series of images), or any difference in how that might impact someone being photographed or filmed in terms of consent or usage.

Yes if it is in a public place recording footage of a police incident, or taking photographs of their actions, is legal.

If officers say that recording them is obstructing them in their policing duties, the advice is to step back from the area but to continue filming as police have no legal powers to stop someone filming incidents in public areas.

No. As long as the photographer is not trespassing on private property and not deliberately harassing anyone, they do not need permission to take photos in a public area and the police have no powers to stop them from taking pictures. That includes taking photos of police officers themselves.

No, they can not.

Police officers do not have the power to delete digital images or destroy film – even during a search. Deletion or destruction may only take place following seizure of the phone (or camera) if there is a lawful power (such as a court order) that permits such deletion or destruction.

Note that individuals generally can not delete (or force someone to delete) photographs or videos – that includes land owners, land agents, hunt masters, and gamekeepers.

An FOI (Freedom of information request reference no: 01.FOI.22.023971) published on the Metropolitan Police website, says the following:


“It is not an offence to film a Police station, if spotted, Police officers can approach and ask questions as to what the individual is doing and why. If the officer suspects possible Terrorism Offences then the power to search, seize could come into effect.

If an individual wants to film outside one of our stations, or film the building itself then we ask them to make contact with us so we can ask questions as to what the project is and how we would manage it.

There is also the issue of Intellectual Property Rights, filming MPS logos, trademarks that, legitimate filming productions have to apply and pay a fee if approved.

There are situations where people turn up at Police stations, videoing, taking photos and wanting a reaction from the Police. The officers obviously have a right to question such activity but if the investigating officer(s) are satisfied that there are no apparent offences and a threat to security then there is no law being broken.”

OperationSNAP is a police response to the increasing amount of mobile phone and dashcam video evidence of driving offences being sent to them by the public. It is operated across Wales (where it was first launched) and England.

According to (for example) GoSafeSnap Wales: “Operation SNAP is a response to increasing submissions of video and photographic evidence relating to driving offences that members of the public have witnessed. Until now, these reports have been submitted to the police in all sorts of ways and so a streamlined process has now been developed to deal with them. This will hopefully make it easier for all involved.”

Operation Snap will investigate offences of Dangerous Driving, Driving without Due Care and Attention, Careless Driving, using a mobile phone, not wearing a seat belt, contravening a red traffic light, contravening solid white lines, and other offences where the driver is clearly not in proper control of the vehicle.

Many forces now operate Operation SNAP and a standard reporting form is available on many of their websites. Note that the types of offences that Operation Snap deal with generally have a six month time limit for prosecution, so any footage needs to be uploaded as quickly as possible.

  • Operation SNAP deals with traffic offences, it is NOT for submitting footage of Road Traffic Collisions (RTCs) or public order offences. Any reports of parking offences should be referred to the relevant highway authority in the locality where it occurred.


Wildlife crime is defined as any action which contravenes current legislation governing the protection of the UK’s wild flora and fauna, including species traded in the UK.

Note that wildlife crime does NOT include:

  • Incidents involving domestic or companion animals such as dogs (other than dogs being used to hunt mammals), cats, rabbits, domesticated birds, etc.
  • Wild animals that have been involved (killed or injured etc) in road traffic accidents.

Road accidents with wild animals do not need to be reported to the police, but note that domestic animals (as well as goats, horses, cattle, asses, mules, sheep and pigs) come within the remit of the Road Traffic Act.
If you have a road accident involving these animals you are required by law to report it to the police. If the wild animal is so badly injured in a road accident that there is no chance of recovery or the animal can not be returned to the wild then he or she may be euthanised, providing there is no appropriate long-term captive or semi-captive accommodation or when treatment would involve undue suffering or distress.

If we come across a wildlife crime scene or a dead bird/object that may be related to a wildlife crime every piece of information is – or might be – important, but it needs to be recorded properly and accurately for the authorities to have a chance of prosecuting an offender.

  • Before we do anything else it is very important that we do NOT approach anyone we suspect of committing a crime – they may be violent and/or aggressive. This is especially true of badger baiters and hare coursers who are typically extremely violent. This must be a first priority!
What do we need to record?
  • What we can see happening – what sort of crime is being committed
  • Are any firearms involved, could we or the public be in danger?
  • The exact location. Most smartphones have map apps or download the free What3Words app. If in open countryside look for obvious landmarks or fence lines, a tall or isolated tree, a wind turbine, any streams or brooks etc. Think about what would you need to re find a remote location.
  • It is important to record if at all possible whether we are on or near public land as this will determine the type of police response.
  • Never put ourselves in danger, but can we see who is involved and what they look like (e.g. number of people, their gender(s), age(s), the clothing worn, tools being carried)? Can we hear them – if so what are they saying, are they using any names etc?
  • If any dogs are involved how many are there, what colour are they, do we know what breed they are (even information like ‘terriers’ or ‘lurcher-types’ can be very useful).
  • The make, colour and registration number of any vehicle (we can take photos of a car if we think it is being used or might be used to commit a crime). Does it have any obvious dents, branding or markings, spotlights, bullbars etc.



  • Do NOT disturb the scene by walking around unnecessarily – small pieces of evidence (cigarette ends, footprints, the marks left by a spade etc) may be lost or trampled into the mud or grass.
  • If photographing an object do try to use eg a coin or a notebook/field guide for scale – providing it won’t disturb the crime scene.
  • If in the countryside take wide angle photographs of any landmarks (a tree, a distinctive fenceline, a hill) that might help officers relocate the crime scene. DO NOT mark a site with eg a white plastic bag though. Being able to see a marker from a distance might sound like a good idea, but it will also alert an offender that someone has been at the site: they may go back and remove the evidence
  • Do NOT move any items at the scene – the exception being if they are likely to disappear before the police arrive when we can collect them as evidence.
  • Do NOT touch any dead birds or animals with bare hands. They may be poisoned baits or victims of poisoning. Many poisons (eg Carbofuran) are extremely dangerous in even very small amounts and can be absorbed through the skin.
  • Do NOT do anything illegal ourselves – that might mean our evidence is not admissible.
If we see a wildlife crime taking place (or someone is at risk of getting injured or is being threatened) call 999 immediately.
They will want to know what we can see happening:
  • What sort of crime is being committed
  • Are any firearms involved
  • Could we or the public be in danger
  • Do we have photos or video footage which may be used as evidence
  • Tell whoever you REPORT the crime to exactly what you have RECORDED as described in the section above.
To report a historic crime – that is, a crime that is no longer taking place – use 101 or a local organisation instead.
  • If calling the police ask to speak to a Wildlife Crime Officer and make sure to get an Incident Report number.
  • Please always follow any advice given and – if they are not available – insist that a Wildlife Crime Officer is made aware of your report.
  •  Our options are wider if the event is over, and it may be preferable to talk first to a charity or NGO to get advice. Crimestoppers (an independent charity) can be contacted in complete confidence on 0800 555 111
  • When thinking about reporting a crime it’s worth noting that only the police have statutory powers to make an arrest. RSPCA and RSPB investigation officers work with the police for successful prosecutions.
Reporting a wildlife crime (or even a suspected wildlife crime) is important for two reasons.
  • If the event is still happening it may enable the authorities to catch the criminals ‘in the act’ (which means a higher chance of prosecution),
  • and if the event is over a report can still help to build up a more accurate picture of what might be happening in a specific location or across the country as a whole.
Our help is always welcomed
  • Whoever we decide to contact we have been assured that our help is welcomed and that if we’re in any doubt that what we’re seeing is a crime we should report it anyway. Remember, if what we see ‘feels’ wrong, it probably is!
  • Even if we’re not sure about what we’re seeing, we can take a photograph and email it to the police or an investigations officer – they are trained to quickly recognise for example when a snare is illegally placed, whether a trap is being used illegally, or whether a crime is being committed or not.
  • We may help stop or solve future crimes by helping build up a pattern of behaviour in an area.

Have you ever wondered what UK law says about hunting with dogs, shooting, or collecting bird eggs? Or what protection foxes, badgers, bats, and birds of prey have? Whether a gamekeeper is using a snare, spring trap, or a cage trap legally? Wanted to know more about operating drones, using airguns, or driving quad bikes legally? What the different forms of trespass are, what constitutes assault, or what we should do if we’re arrested?

And have you ever been unimpressed with having to search hunting and shooting websites to find some of the information you need?

Us too! Which is why we have developed ‘Protectors of the Wild‘ and laid out the information we need in over thirty simple, mobile-friendly pages just like this one.

Protectors of the Wild‘ is a free resource to help us all become ‘eyes in the field’ by learning how to recognise, record, and report wildlife crime and wildlife persecution.

After all, the more we know, the more any potential criminal will have to be looking over their shoulder wondering if we know enough to Recognise, Record, and Report what they’re up to.

And the more we can all do to help protect the wild.

Have you ever wondered what UK law says about hunting with dogs, shooting, or collecting bird eggs? Or what protection foxes, badgers, bats, and birds of prey have? Whether a gamekeeper is using a snare, spring trap, or a cage trap legally? Wanted to know more about operating drones, using airguns, or driving quad bikes legally? What the different forms of trespass are, what constitutes assault or harassment, or what we should do if we’re stopped and searched or even arrested?

And have you ever been unimpressed with having to search hunting and shooting websites to find some of the information you need?

Us too! Which is why we have developed ‘Protectors of the Wild‘ and laid out the information we need in forty-one simple, mobile-friendly pages and over 500 FAQs just like this one.

Protectors of the Wild‘ is a free resource with two aims: to help us all become ‘eyes in the field’ by learning how to recognise, record, and report wildlife crime and wildlife persecution; and to provide a ‘quick guide’ to anyone interacting with hunts, hunt supporters, or the police.

After all, the more we know, the more any potential criminal will have to be looking over their shoulder wondering if we know enough to Recognise, Record, and Report what they’re up to, and the more we know our rights the better we can protect ourselves.

And the more we can all do to help protect the wild.

The National Wildlife Crime Unit currently has seven priority offences for wildlife crime.

Badger persecution

It is illegal to interfere with or block a badger’s home or ‘sett’. Badger baiting is a centuries-old now illegal blood sport, where small dogs such as terriers or lurchers seek badgers out of their setts before fighting and killing them.

Bat persecution

Bats and their homes are legally protected, so disturbing or removing them is an offence. If bats roost in your roof, you need to obtain a special ‘bat mitigation licence’ from Natural England to be allowed to disturb them. They are hugely important to our ecosystem.

Trade of endangered species

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) sets out which endangered animals and plants have protected status. It is illegal to remove any of them from their natural habitat, possess, or sell them. Currently, the top priorities are European eels, birds of prey, ivory, medicinal and health products, reptiles, rhino horns, and timber.

Freshwater pearl mussel offences

These Endangered mussels (Margaritifera margaritifera) are only found in rivers in Scotland and small parts of England. They can live for more than 130 years but are extremely sensitive to water pollution and have been illegally farmed for years. It is illegal to damage or destroy their habitat or to take, injure or kill them.


Fox, deer, and hare hunting are all illegal under the Hunting Act 2004. Poaching offences also cover illegal fishing – when anglers do not obtain a licence or remove protected fish from lakes and rivers without returning them.

Raptor persecution

Birds of prey are often targeted on shooting estates. Their eggs are also traded illegally. It is an offence to target, poison, or kill them, with a particular focus on Golden Sagles, Goshawks, Hen Harriers, Peregrines, Red Kites, and White-tailed Eagles. Disturbing or taking their eggs or chicks is also illegal.

Cyber-enabled wildlife crime

Social media is often used to promote wildlife crime and recruit people to take part in it. Endangered plants and animals are also traded illegally online.

  • Punishment must fit the crime. Conditional discharges and paltry fines are not a disincentive for criminals.

A common complaint is that even if wildlife criminals are brought to court the fines or sentences they get are pathetic and not a disincentive. In most cases judges are giving out the penalties they are allowed to under the law. Changes can be made though. In 2022 the maximum sentence for ‘causing uneccesary suffering’ went from six months to five years. That was the result of targeted public pressure and campaigning. We need to identify where changes should be made and push hard for them.


  • Wildlife crime must be notifiable and statistics accurately compiled so that resources can be properly targeted.

Police forces are required by law to inform the Home Office of any notifiable offences, which then uses the reports to compile the crime statistics known as ‘recorded crime’. Currently, wildlife crimes are not ‘notifiable’ though (and wildlife crime involving firearms are also not recorded as firearms offences by the Police).  Without them being notifiable, no one knows how many wildlife crimes are being committed across the UK and where the hotspots are (though ‘grouse moors’ is one obvious response). As we have stated many times on this website, law and legislative enforcement is hugely underfunded and under-resourced. Some of this has undoubtedly been through political choice, but if we at least know which crimes are being committed and where, the resources that are available can be placed where they are needed most.


  • There must be changes to make it far easier for all of us to play our part in ‘Recognising, Reporting, Recording’ wildlife cime.

As even a quick glance at the Protectors pages makes clear, laws protecting wildlife are hard to understand. Major pieces of legislation like the Hunting Act 2004  and other laws are riddled with exemptions which strongly favour the hunting, shooting, and agricultural industries. Some date from a century or more ago and don’t reflect the modern world. These need to be updated. While there has undoubtedly been efforts made by successive governmants to use ‘plain english’ to explain legislation, any government wanting to tackle wildlife crime needs to make understanding what is and what isn’t a crime far more easily understood and put resources into a reporting system that the public feel confident using. Crucially, the public need to be sure that if they do report a crime it will be acted upon.


  • We have to protect the environment and wildlife properly.

Laws protecting wildlife and the environment need to be revised to reflect the 21st century and the biodiversity and climate crises we are in. Animals (and plants) are not an add-on or a ‘nice to have’ – they have shaped the systems that life depends on, and our laws need to reflect how critically important they are.


If you’d like to support just one legislative change, Protect the Wild has launched ‘The Hunting of Mammals Bill: A Proper Ban on Hunting‘ – please sign our petition calling for a proper ban on hunting with dogs.

We would like Protectors of the Wild to be the ‘go to’ free resource, packed with the kind of information that really does help all of us become ‘eyes in the field. But we can’t possibly think of every question that might need answering or every situation someone might find themselves in! And while the information in these pages is largely taken from Government online advice and was compiled in 2023 (and constantlyy updated), perhaps we’ve missed something out.

If you could provide us with legal advice get in touch. Or if you find a mistake or a gap please let us know. That way we can continually improve Protectors of the Wild – for the benefit of animals and all of us. Thanks.

‘Protectors of the Wild’ is a project of Protect the Wild. We have a dedicated email address for anyone wishing to get in touch with a specific Protectors query or with additional information etc. Please use the form on our Contact Protectors page or email Thank you.

Much of the information we give in these pages is very technical or to do with legislation which can be revised without much notice. While we have worked very hard on these pages and we take keeping our information accurate and up-to-date very seriously, Protect the Wild are not legal professionals. Just to make sure no-one thinks we’re offering professional legal advice, we feel obliged to include the following disclaimer on every page.

  • Please think of the ‘Protectors of the Wild’ pages as a ‘first stop’ before seeking legal advice. We provide detailed information but not professional advice. The information provided by Protect the Wild should NOT be considered or relied on as legal advice and is for general informational purposes only. Any of the material on our website may be out of date at any given time, and we are under no legal obligation to update such material. While we update and revise as often as we can, Protect the Wild assumes no responsibility for the accuracy and correctness of any information, or for any consequences of relying on it. Please do not act or refrain from acting upon this information without seeking professional legal advice.